Behavior Change Database

What Is It?

Resource: EPA Region 8 HQ Offices
Intervention Type: Communications
Sub-Type: Marketing
Energy Use Reduction: 0%
Description: Once a week e-mails to employees on energy efficiency

Resource: EPA Region 8 HQ Offices
Intervention Type: Feedback
Sub-Type: Competition
Energy Use Reduction: 6% reduction from baseline
Description: Organized competitions with groups of cubicles, and presented energy information for each group in online dashboard. An energy management device, which measured energy use and could connect up to four circuits were installed on each group of cubicles.

Resource: EPA Region 8 HQ Offices
Intervention Type: Feedback
Sub-Type: Installation
Energy Use Reduction: 21% from baseline
Description: In EPA Region 8 Office building, automatic control systems were added to work systems to power-down plugged in devices after 15 minutes of idle time. Savings persisted over time.

Resource: ACEEE Greening Work Styles Report
Intervention Type: Feedback
Sub-Type: Incentives
Energy Use Reduction: See measurements for entire program, under integrated initiatives
Description: Energy conservation incorporated into bonus considerations as further incentive for program participation at British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority’s offices

Resource: ACEEE Greening Work Styles Report
Intervention Type: Feedback
Sub-Type: Energy Audits
Energy Use Reduction: See measurements for entire program under integrated initiatives
Description: Cubicle energy “tune-ups” provided as part of stacked program at British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority Offices

Resource: ACEEE Greening Work Styles Report
Intervention Type: Integrated Programs
Sub-Type: N/A
Energy Use Reduction: 2.4% engagement only, 4% when daylighting and workstation lighting switches added.
Description: Ministry of Mines, B.C. Canada conducted a 1-year long program with work-station efficiency “tune-ups” by green team, pledge program. Also implemented a lighting control pilot for 1-week.

Resource: ACEEE Greening Work Styles Report
Intervention Type: Integrated Programs
Sub-Type: N/A
Energy Use Reduction: 4.2% reduction from baseline
Description: 3 Toronto-area hospitals created a two-year energy reduction programs which included facilities manager education, e-mail and marketing materials, a pledge program, a program kick-off meeting for employees, and peer champions for targeted behavior changes (task lighting, computers, idle electronics)

Resource: GSA Plug Loads Report
Intervention Type: Feedback
Sub-Type: Installation
Energy Use Reduction: 47.5% energy reduction from baseline
Description: Advanced power strips purchased for employee workstations allowed employees to set timer for plugged in devices to power down. Energy use tracked in web-interface. Payback period ranged from .7 (office kitchens) to 7.8 years (workstations). There was initial employee pushback.

Resource: GSA Plug Loads Report
Intervention Type: Feedback
Sub-Type: Installation
Energy Use Reduction: 16.5% from baseline
Description: Load-sensing advanced power strips for GSA office work-stations powered down non-critical units after 15 minutes of idle-time. Pay-back times ranged from 5.5 years (print rooms) to 46 years (workstations) across 2 buildings

Resource: Vanderbilt University Office Experiment
Intervention Type: Feedback
Sub-Type: Delayed Feedback
Energy Use Reduction: 7% energy reduction from baseline
Description: Monthly e-mail with progress towards building-wide energy goals for four months, and postcard indicating new initiative

Resource: Vanderbilt University Office Experiment
Intervention Type: Human-Based
Sub-Type: Peer Champions
Energy Use Reduction: 2%, When inactive employees removed from dataset, 4%
Description: In Vanderbilt University office space designated employees served as buildings champions sent e-mails, hosted Q&A sessions and provided energy saving tips to employees over four-month campaign

Resource: Vanderbilt University Office Experiment
Intervention Type: Integrated Programs
Sub-Type: N/A
Energy Use Reduction: 8% energy use reduction over baseline
Description: Postcards/email outreach, personal goal setting, peer champions, feedback on progress towards building-wide goals for four months in Vanderbilt Office Space

Resource: Smart Energy Charlotte
Intervention Type: Human-Based
Sub-Type: Community-based social marketing
Energy Use Reduction: Data from program has not yet been published
Description: Smart Energy Charlotte is a community-wide campaign targeting energy efficiency reductions. Challenge advertised around community with interactive web-interface

Resource: Smart Energy Charlotte
Intervention Type: Feedback
Sub-Type: Pledging/Goal-Setting
Energy Use Reduction: Data from program has not yet been published
Description: Smart Energy Charlotte is a city-wide campaign to encourage individuals, offices, and buildings to reduce energy-use by 5%. Pledges are tracked on a website, as well as the City’s progress towards its goal. Organized by Duke Energy

Resource: ACEEE Survey of Behavior-Based Interventions
Intervention Type: Communications
Sub-Type: Training
Energy Use Reduction: Results not measured in 17 surveyed training programs
Description: Employee training programs developed by providers such as Cool Choices and Practically Green on energy efficiency. Trainings I.D. areas of improvement for each office and solutions, accompanied by innovative web platform with recognition.

Resource: ACEEE Survey of Behavior-Based Interventions
Intervention Type: Human-based
Sub-Type: Online Forums
Energy Use Reduction: Average 9% savings on energy bills
Description: Cape Cod Light Compact’s Smart Home Energy Monitoring Pilot, established limited-entry online forum for residential customers to share energy saving tips. 93 participants were active in forum, though ACEEE notes that many online forums suffer from disengaged or insufficient user bases

Resource: ACEEE Survey of Behavior-Based Interventions
Intervention Type: Human-based
Sub-Type: Gifts
Energy Use Reduction: Data unavailable
Description: In the past, utilities have classified give-aways of audits or EE products as marketing rather than behavior change programs. Behavioral literature suggests that people feel more obligated towards reciprocity after receiving gifts.

Resource: Regulatory Agency Offices, Boise, Idaho
Intervention Type: Communications
Sub-Type: Targeted Communications Efforts
Energy Use Reduction: 4.14% savings during unoccupied times.
Description: E-mail education once-a-week for a month about plug-load reduction from HR department on plug load reductions. Suggestions focused on unplugging unused items and turning systems off.

Resource: Ongoing City of Boston Pilot
Intervention Type: Communications
Sub-Type: Marketing/Mass Media
Energy Use Reduction: TBD
Description: Greenovate Captivate Elevator LCD campaign focusing on: Use of revolving doors, double-sided printing, powering down computers

Resource: Sacramento Municipal Utility District
Intervention Type: Feedback
Sub-Type: Real-time
Energy Use Reduction: 20% energy savings
Description: Real-time feedback pilot using time-of-use rates and metering for HVAC control , for 78 small commercial businesses (Referenced by ACEEE)

Resource: Empire State Building MRV Report, Year 2
Intervention Type: Feedback
Sub-Type: Delayed Feedback
Energy Use Reduction: Did not meet expected $25,000 savings goal. No savings.
Description: Tenant Energy Management program provided each individual web-based interval power-use data for their sub-metered floor along with comparisons to similar floors as part of suite of behaviorial initiatives and retrofits in Empire State Building upgrades

Resource: Cool Choices Program Overview
Intervention Type: Feedback
Sub-Type: Gamification
Energy Use Reduction: 67% employee participation rate over 6-months. $127,000and 603 metric tons of CO2 in annual savings
Description: Cool Choices game assigns points to energy-conservation behaviors. Two pilot programs with Wisconsin businesses, only one with measurable results over 6-month program

Resource: Articles available upon request
Intervention Type: Feedback
Sub-Type: Text-Messaging
Energy Use Reduction: SMS reminders improve adherence from 50% to 93% in hypertensive patients (n=1015), 16% in patients with daily glaucoma therapy (n=428), 16-17% in patients with coronary heart diseases (n=90), significantly improved adherence and bioindicators for diabetes patients with 93% patient satisfaction (n=128).
Description: Several public health studies have been conducted using text messages to remind patients with chronic illnesses to change their behavior to more aggressively care for their conditions through taking prescriptions and healthier lifestyle choices.

Resource: GSA High Performance Green Building’s Sub-metering Business Case Paper
Intervention Type: Feedback
Sub-Type: Installation
Energy Use Reduction: 0-2 %, sub-meters only, 2.5-5% on-bill allocation, 5-15% building tune-up, 15-40% ongoing commissioning
Description: DOE Study investigated cost-effectiveness of sub-metering installations in reducing plug loads. DOE distinguishes between simply installing sub-meters, sub-metering with on-bill allocation, sub-metering with building tune-ups, load management and awareness campaigns, and with sub-meters coupled with ongoing commissioning and awareness.

Resource: National Science and Technology Committee’s Analysis of Submetering Energy and Water Use
Intervention Type: Feedback
Sub-Type: Installation
Energy Use Reduction: 18%, $160,000 savings over the year
Description: Vornado Realty Trust in NYC introduced hourly consumption data after sub-metering a large tenant (400,000 square foot office space.)

Resource: National Science and Technology Committee’s Analysis of Submetering Energy and Water Use
Intervention Type: Feedback
Sub-Type: Installation
Energy Use Reduction: At least 10% for all buildings in program
Description: Research university sub-metered and charged individual departments. Sub-metering led to savings. University was able to gain further savings by negotiating a “virtual aggregation program” for peak demand charges.

Resource: Kilowatt Cup 2013
Intervention Type: Integrated Programs
Sub-Type: N/A
Energy Use Reduction: 2013: 7% company energy savings over baseline and 18% plug-load and lighting energy savings. Most savings from previous years competitions eroded, but PECI is looking to technology to help automate and lock-in behavior changes.
Description: Kilowatt Cup program is PECI’s two-week long floor-by-floor competition which incorporates floor leaders, pledges, energy dashboards, plug load controls, and cubicle audits. Competition used to observe behavior and I.D. areas where automated technology solutions (i.e. occupancy sensors) are possible.

Resource: ACEEE: Gamified Energy Efficiency Programs
Intervention Type: Feedback
Sub-Type: Gamification
Energy Use Reduction: 3-6% among a sizable number of participants
Description: This study describes and analyzes 22 game-based solutions that are already or have the potential to be part of an energy efficiency program. These include games in which players are rewarded for energy saving activities, competitive energy saving games, games with real-time granular data on player’s energy use, and games that make extensive use of virtual worlds.

Resource: Snohomish Starbucks Behavior Based Energy Efficincy Pilot
Intervention Type: Integrated Programs
Sub-Type: N/A
Energy Use Reduction: -1.8 to 9%, average among all stores of 4%
Description: This study showed the results of a behavior based energy efficiency pilot program based on a 30 day competition between 10 Starbucks Coffee locations in Snohomish County. The competition was done in combination with an Energy Information System (EIS) to affect behavior change through behavior, employee engagement, and focused energy savings strategies.