What Is It?

Cost: $3.00-$12.00 per sq ft
Applications: Parking lots, pathways, sidewalks, plazas, driveways, public spaces, tree pits. Only use in low volume, low-speed roads.
Service Life: 5-10 years (vehicular traffic); 10-15 years (pedestrian traffic).

Resin-bound and -bonded paving uses a clear resin to bind gravel and other aggregates together. In resin-bound systems, the aggregate is mixed with the resin before application, while in resin-bonded systems, resin is applied to the surface and loose aggregates are scattered onto the surface before the resin sets. Plastic grids are occasionally used to reinforce the aggregate and increase load support. The aggregate layers are often quite thin compared to other types of paving with no more than an inch of bound/bonded aggregates laid on top of a subgrade.

The porous nature of resin-bound/bonded paving gives it high permeability, subject to the permeability of the subgrade. As with other permeable pavements, periodic vacuuming will help maintain infiltration rates with frequency determined by the amount of sediment the system is exposed to. Without vacuuming, permeable systems typically become completely clogged within 5-7 years. Snow should only be removed using rubber or plastic shovels, as metal shovels and snow plows can damage the aggregate layers. Salt can also be used, but sand should be avoided.


  • Enhances groundwater infiltration while reducing stormwater runoff volume, rate, and pollutants.
  • Aggregates can reduce urban heat island through increased reflectivity and evaporative cooling.
  • Variety of colors and shapes of aggregate can help preserve urban aesthetic.
  • Resin application prevents most aggregate displacement from heavy use.
  • Reduces occurrence of black ice/freezing puddles in cold climates; requires fewer applied deicers.


  • Pollutants can infiltrate groundwater. Should not be installed in areas where hazardous material spills are possible.
  • Lower load strength than other types of permeable paving.
  • Damaged surfaces must be repaired by cutting out the affected section and re-laying the aggregate.
  • Snow removal can be more difficult than with other types of paving.
  • Frequent freeze-thaw cycles may require that expansion joints be cut into the paving.

Regulatory Impacts and Requirements

A summary of potential regulatory touchpoints follows below:

Financing Options, Incentives, And Rebates

Additional Resources




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